S. Michael Choi

i am a mountaineer (6000m+ range) and naturalist who resides in china. i pioneered the SSE route on Bogda Shan in the Tianshan Mountains. Tianshan means 'Heavenly Mountains.' During the days of the Silk Road, the Tianshan were a welcome rest-stop/oasis with beautiful springs waters from the mountains providing a clean respite and haven from the weariness of travel.

It was written as late as the 1890s that the Chinese customs patrols began in Xinjiang, which translates to "New Frontier." Deep culture and language theorists believe there may have been a 'sprachbund' of related Manchu-Tungusic speakers before the modern Chinese superstate showed up.

Today, whether you are Mongol or Manchu, Tianshan mountains welcome you!